The quantity of a substance that contains as many elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules ions or formula units as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of C-12. In modern terms, gram-molecule and gram-atom are termed as a mole of molecules and a mole of atoms respectively e.g., 1 gram-molecule of oxygen and I gram-atom of oxygen are expressed as 1 mole of O2 and 1 mole of O respectively.
Mole: A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many species , such as atoms, molecules ions or other particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of C-12.
1 Mole of atoms = Gram atomic mass or molar mass = 6.022 x 1023 molecules = 22.4 L at NTP (OoC, 1 atm) = 22.7 L at STP (0°C, 1 bar)
Atomic Mass: Atomic mass of an element can be defined as the number which indicates how many times the mass of one atom of the element is heavier in comparison to ¹/12th part of the mass of Carbon-12Atomic mass = Mass of an atom of the element / ¹/12 × mass of an atom of carbon= Mass of an atom in amu / 1 amu
Atomic mass unit (amu): The quantity ¹/12 × mass of an atom of C-12 is known as atomic mass unitThe number of moles of a substance can be calculated by various means.
Number of moles of molecules = Mass in g / Molar MassNumber of moles of atoms = Mass in g / Molar MassNumber of moles of gases = Volume at NTP / Standard Molar Volume
(Standard molar volume is the volume occupied by 1 mole of any gas at NTP which is equal to 22.4 litres.)
Number of moles of atoms/molecules/ions/electrons = No. of moles of atoms/molecules/ions/electrons / Avogadro constant
Mole Concept of Various method
% by weight of solute in solution = Mass of solute in gram / mass of solution in gram× 100
% by volume of solute in solution = Volume of solute in mL / Volume of solution in mL× 100
% by weight to volume solute in solution = Mass of solute in gram / volume of solution in mL× 100
Empirical and Molecular formula
Steps involved in the calculation of empirical formula :
- Convert the mass percentage into grams: considering 100 g of the compound, the given mass percentages represent the masses of the elements in grams.
- Calculate the number of moles of each element.
- Calculate the simplest molar ratio: divide the moles obtained by the least value from amongst the values obtained for each element.
- Calculate the simplest whole number ratio: multiply all the simplest atomic ratios by a suitable integer.
- Write the empirical formula: write the symbols of each element along with their whole number ratios side by side.
Molecular formula = empirical formula x n
n = 1,2,3,…..etc.= Molar mass / Empirical formula mass